Organized crime: Then and now in metro area
Cement shoes. Swimming with the fishes. Code of silence. Going to the mattresses. Shakedown. Rat, mobster, soldier, made man, don. Garbage business, waste management business. Hit. Whack. Golden Age. Rico.
Whether we learned these terms from numerous viewings of “The Godfather” or binge-watching “The Sopranos,” we all think we're experts on the mob, the Mafia, or organized crime. Yet, despite the prevalence of popular culture, the reality of organized crime in America is much more nuanced than a Mario Puza novel or an HBO series, with a rich and distinct history. That history has evolved and morphed as additional crime entities have developed, leaving organized crime to remain as powerful entities today, just in different manifestations, representing a variety of different ethnicities and cultures.
Since its beginnings in this country, Detroit has been a major hub of organized crime activity, which is defined as transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who engage in illegal activity for money or profit. While the Mafia falls into the category of organized crime, they are not the only group, and are not synonymous with organized crime, as the Mafia are Italian organized crime families. There are others. Situated on the border of Canada, between New York City and Chicago, the Mafia, coupled with a group of Jewish thugs who became known as the Purple Gang, helped Detroit become one of the strongholds of organized crime in this country.
In the 1920s, when Prohibition was the law of the land, Detroit was the fourth largest city in the country, with a population of over 1.5 million people. Prohibition, which lasted from 1920 until 1933, was a nationwide constitutional ban, via the Eighteenth Amendment, on the production, importation, transportation and sale of alcoholic beverages. However, in Michigan, liquor became illegal three years earlier than the rest of the country – in 1917. The reason? Henry Ford, who owned the River Rouge plant in Dearborn, wanted a sober workforce and backed the 1916 Damon Act, which prohibited the use of alcohol beginning in 1917. By 1919, the Damon Act was declared unconstitutional, mostly because judges wouldn't support it, taking a lenient view of offenders – just in time for the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution to take effect, which, along with the separate Volstead Act – which provided the methods for enforcement of the Eighteenth Amendment and defined which “intoxicating liquors” were prohibited – and which were excluded, such as for medicinal or religious purposes.
For bootleggers, the Damon Act and the Eighteenth Amendment were heaven sent, and the prohibition of alcohol, combined with a large and prosperous workforce in Detroit from a growing automobile industry, helped create the rise of the Mafia and other organized crime groups. After all, just because liquor was forbidden didn't mean people didn't want it just as much – or even more. Speakeasies, blind pigs and gin joints burgeoned, with those who could afford to flocking to them. They became glamorous and exciting places to be seen at, and as the Gilda Lehrman Institute of American History noted, while pre-Prohibition saloons rarely were welcome places for women, “the new world of nightclubs invited both the bob-haired 'flapper' and her 'sheik' to drink cocktails, smoke, and dance to jazz.”
In 1918, with Michigan having enacted the Damon Act, Detroit was the first city in the country with a population over 250,000 to go dry. At the time, there were approximately 1,800 licensed saloons. By 1925, in the depths of Prohibition, it's estimated there were about 25,000 blind pigs in the city.
“Ultimately, only a small percentage of liquor distributors found themselves arrested. But even this limited number of accused – there were approximately 65,000 federal criminal actions in the first two years of Prohibition – was enough to cripple the justice system. Prisons grew crowded, and judges tried to incentivize quick 'guilty' pleas by promising very small fines. And if a liquor seller did wind up on trial, juries filled with liquor drinkers were often reluctant to find the defendants guilty; only about 60 percent of cases ended with a conviction,” reported the Gilda Lehrman Institute of American History.
The exception included those who were “connected.”
“During this period both the Chicago and New York underworlds often grabbed the headlines of major newspapers with their own beer wars and gangster escapades, yet the Detroit underworld in many ways was worse,” said Detroit organized crime expert Scott Burnstein. “Detroit's proximity to Ontario, Canada, made it an opportune place for rumrunners and smugglers. By the mid-twenties, an estimated 500,000 cases of Canadian whiskey were coming across the Detroit River every month.”
The Canadian government, which had temporarily banned the use of alcoholic beverages, had still approved and licensed distilleries and breweries to manufacture and export alcohol. The port of Windsor, directly across the Detroit River from Detroit, was an easy boat ride for smugglers going back and forth, evading authorities. According to Shannon Saksewski, author of “Awesome Mitten,” “By some accounts, around 75 percent of the alcohol distributed in the United States during Prohibition came through Detroit. Detroit was nicknamed 'Whiskeytown.'”
In addition, beginning in 1917 with the Damon Act, with Detroit's closeness to Ohio, bootleggers imported whiskey from – and to – Toledo, which then found itself traveling south.
Mark Gribben noted that part of what allowed the rise of many bootleggers is that like other major cities at the beginning of the 20th century, Detroit's immigrant neighborhoods were impoverished, leading some to become breeding grounds for crime and violence. The most notorious organized crime members of the early 20th century started off not as high end smugglers, but as petty thieves and shakedown artists, whether in the Hastings Street neighborhood known as Paradise Valley in Detroit's lower east side, where most of the Purple Gang's central members arose from as the children of Jewish immigrants, or in the Eastern Market neighborhood and Wyandotte area, where the first Sicilian Italian criminals moved to and gained their foothold.
“During the great wave of immigration between 1880 and 1920, many Italian and Sicilian people left their homelands for U.S. shores,” Burnstein said. “Along with many hardworking and law-abiding new Americans came Old World criminals. These Italian and Sicilian gangsters were either looking for greener pastures or were forced to leave their homeland because they were wanted by the authorities.”
He said that prior to Prohibition, these criminals caught police attention due to an extortion racket which was very popular among small time criminals as well as members of the Mafia and the Camorra, a similar gang out of Naples. Their scheme was to write an anonymous letter to a prosperous member of the community threatening to murder him or his wife, kidnap their children, or to destroy their place of business if certain extortion demands were not met. Since most of these local targets not only didn't trust local police, they were superstitious – there were lots of examples in the Italian community of what happened to people who ignored these letters, and it wasn't pretty. Burnstein noted that the extortion racket become so widespread in most large U.S. cities that they had special squads in their police departments to deal with these crimes in their Italian communities.
This racket was sometimes used, Burnstein noted, by Salvatore and Vito Adamo, Sicilian immigrant brothers who arrived in Detroit around 1900.
“Starting around 1905, the Adamo brothers were leaders of a Mafia gang on Detroit's lower east side that preyed on the Italian community, and that most likely constituted the first semblance of modern day organized crime in the Motor City,” Burnstein said. “The Adamo mob was involved in the typical ethnic underworld rackets of the time, which included making beer and wine, extorting protection money from local citizens, and the Italian lottery.”
Vito lived in Wyandotte, while Salvatore, who was known as Sam, headquartered his operations out of Eastern Market.
The first threat to their authority came around 1910 with the arrival of three other Sicilian brothers, Antonino, Salvatore and Gaetano Gianolla. Burnstein said there was a brief shaky peace between the two Mafia factions, but the Gianolla brothers, who he said became known in local underworld circles as the Triumvirate of Terror, began chafing under the Adamos' rule. The Gianollas' controlled all the rackets downriver from their produce business, the Wyandotte Fruit Company, and by 1911, expanded their empire into the Eastern Market empire and other east side neighborhoods the Adamos' had been controlling.
“It was not long before open warfare broke out,” Burnstein said. “The gang war lasted approximately two-and-a-half years, from 1911 to 1913, and left dozens of bodies in its wake from both sides of the conflict. The Gianollas eventually claimed victory in the vicious street battle by murdering both Adamo brothers as they walked together at the corner of Mullett and Russell streets in Eastern Market in November 1913.”
Peace, such as it was, lasted amongst the mafiosos, until 1917, when there was another all-out street war for supremacy between the Gianollas and one of their enforcers, Giovanni “Bloody John” Vitale.
“The war was jumpstarted when Antonino ‘Tony’ Gionolla ordered the murder of Sam Bosco, a close friend and trusted associate of Vitale's, over a dispute,” Burnstein said. “When the Vitale faction attempted to hijack a load of liquor belonging to the Giannola brothers, the Giannola/Vitale gang war officially began.”
Over the next four years, Burnstein said, over 100 men were killed in the turf war. By October 1920, when it was over, all of the major leaders of both gangs had been killed.
A peace conference called after Thanksgiving that year led to a division of territory that appears to continue to this day – and is believed to have led to the name “La Costa Nostra” in the community, meaning, “this thing of ours,” based on the secret Mafia Sicilian organization.
“Salvatore 'Singing Sam' Cattalanotte, a respected Giannola advisor, presided over a meeting of the minds and helped forge a peace agreement,” Burnstein said. “Territory was divided among what would become known as the Eastside and Westside Mobs, with former Gianolla lieutenants Joe Zerilli and William 'Black Bill' Tocco leading the Eastsiders and Chester 'Big Chet' La Mara, a long time counsel to Cattalanotte, heading the Westsiders.”
Cattalanotte was the head of Detroit's Sicilian Mafia during Prohibition, and he organized the remaining Mafia factions in Detroit, along with friends and relatives from St. Louis, under a liquor combine that became known as the “Pascuzzi Combine,” according to records kept by Joe “Misery” Moceri.
At this same time, a bunch of Jewish street thugs grew to become one of the most notorious and vicious organized crime groups in the country before flaming out. Originally known as the Oakland Sugar House Gang, they became known as the Purple Gang, although the origins of the name are subject to debate.
Burnstein said that around 1917, the original group of 18 to 20 predominantly Jewish boys who were from the old Hastings Street section of Detroit's lower east side had become neighborhood nuisances. “They rolled drunks, beat up other youngsters, and extorted money from local merchants. This teenage street gang would eventually evolve into one of the most notorious underworld groups of the Prohibition era.”
“Perhaps the most ruthless bootleggers of their time, they may have killed over 500 members of rival bootlegging gangs during Detroit's bootleg wars,” said historian and author Kathy Weiser. “Bootlegging netted the Purple Gang millions of dollars, but the mob was also involved in extortion, hijacking and jewelry thefts. The Purple Gang also attempted to run gambling rings in Detroit, especially among the African American population.”
As for the name, legend has it that one Hasting Street shopkeeper complained to another, “These boys are not like other youngsters, they're tainted. They're like the color of bad meat, purple.”
“Yes,” said the other shopkeeper, “they're a purple gang.”
Burnstein, though, said the name most likely evolved during a period of labor strife known as the Cleaners and Dyers War, where one of the Purple Gang's terror tactics was to throw purple dye on clothing, in order to force tailor shops to join the union.